BLDC Motor Basics.Part 1

Greetings from GoGoA1.com team;)

Our amazing technical department prepared a new post specially for you. Here you can get a simple explanation of complicated things: important terms, electric motor types, BLDC motor construction, and its working principle.

So, let’s start.

Function: Electric motors converts Electrical energy into mechanical energy.

Important terms to remember:

a.VOLTAGE– also known as ELECTRIC PRESSURE/ ELECTRIC TENSION, can be defined as the difference in electric potential between two points per unit electric charge.

b.CURRENT– can be defined as the net amount of charge (i.e the number of electrons * electron charge) flowing past a specified point during a time interval (seconds).

c.MAGNETIC FIELD– the magnetic field is the area around a magnet in which there is a magnetic force.

Moving electric charges can make fields. The magnetic field is induced by a current carrying wire, or it is generated naturally by the charge arrangement in a ferrous material.

d.FLEMMING’S LEFT HAND RULE– this rule is applicable for d.c motors. The rule states that, whenever a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, a force acts on the conduct in the direction perpendicular to both, the current and the magnetic field.

Here you can see Fleming's Left Hand Rule demonstration
Fleming’s Left Hand Rule demonstration

Types of electric motors:

Types of motor demonstration. There are to main types of motors: DC motora and AC motors. That 2 types also divides on categories.
Types of motor

Brushless DC motor construction:

1.STATOR – made of- laminated steel stacked up to carry the copper
windings.

BLDC motor stator image
Stator

Windings of the stator can be arranged in two patterns;

a.Star pattern(Y):

patter

This pattern gives high torque at low RMP.

b.Delta pattern:

This pattern gives low torque at high RMP.

2.ROTOR – made out of permanent magnets.

Rotor

The number of permanent magnets used in a rotor impacts the torque.Increasing the number of poles gives better torque. But it also increases the cost of the motor.The material used for the construction of the permanent magnet also impacts the torque; the higher the flux density of the material, the higher the torque.

3. HALL-EFFECT SENSORS – it determines the position of the
rotor. Based on this information the controller decides, which stator coil to energize. It is situated at the back of the motor.

Working principle: basic interaction between a permanent magnet(rotor) and an electromagnet(stator).

For simplicity, сonsider three stator coil winding arrangements A, B
and C.

When coil A is given a dc supply, it gets energized and becomes an electromagnet.

The opposite pole of the rotor gets attracted to the stator(opposite poles attract). As a result, the rotor pole moves near the energized stator.

As the rotor nears the coil A, coil B of the stator is energized. Similarly, as the rotor nears coil B, coil C is energized. After that, coil A is energized with opposite polarity.

This process is repeated, and the rotor continues to rotate.

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